Final Exam

So, I thought it would be easier if we posted the final exam questions here instead of on individual papers.

Justin's Paper on Asthma

—Which of the following are characteristics of asthma?
a. A Th1 dominated responce
b. Bronchial hypersenesitivity
c. influx of eosinophils
d. Increased longevity of immune cells
e. sinusitis
f. constriction of alveoli

Answers b,C, D

Differences between glucocorticoids and corticosteriods include?
A. only glucocorticoids can be used to treat asthma.
b. glucocorticoids alter mRNA stability
c. both corticosteriods and glucocorticoids can be used to treat asthma.
d. corticosteroids acetylate histone proteins around imflammatory genes.

Answers b and D

How is the Vitamin D receptor believed to be associated with asthma?
a. a mutation in the vit D receptor causes transscription and translation of inflammatory genes.
b. introns in the Vit D receptor gene are believed to be requlatory elements for inflammitory cytokines genes.
C. The Vit D receptor bound to it's ligand, Vit D, has been shown to decrease IFN-y levels and Increase IL 2 and 10 levels—

Answers B and C

The Hygenine hypothesis…
A. Is completely accepted
b. trys to answer the quetion why people in developed and more cleanly countirs have a higher occurance of asthma
c. states that exsposer to allergens at a young age increases chance of asthma in life
d. Is supported by the fact that some allergens are known to help develope the Th1 responce.

Answers B and D

Brooke's Paper

—in general, parasitism is defined as:
a. a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of the same species in which one benefits from another
b. the host is harmed
c. the parasite benefits from a prolonged, close association with the host
d. hosts are never harmed

answers: b,c—

The differences between direct life cycle and complex life cycle is that
a. in direct life cycles, the parasite requires only one host
b. in direct life cycles, the parasite lays eggs inside the host
c. in the complex life cycle, parasites increase their chance for survival by having more genetic variability
d. in the complex life cycle, the eggs from parasites can either re-infect the same host or similar host that come into contact with them

answers: a,c,d

Kristen's Paper

1. What are differences between invertebrate and vertebrate immune systems?
a. Vertebrates have T- cells and B-cells
b. Invertebrates only have an innate immune system
c. Vertebrates have an innate immune system and an acquired immune system
d. Invertebrates use AMPs in their immune system

—2. Which statements are true about melanization?
a. It helps to trap the pathogen
b. It happens when invertebrates are exposed to too much sun
c. Spots can be seen on the organism, where melanization occurred
d. Pathogens are allowed to live within the melanized area for several days
*A: a, c

3. Explain why regulation of the immune system is important and give an example of how it is regulated.
A: many answers could apply

Toll receptors in flies are analagous to what time of molecules in vertebrates?
A. Toll like receptors
b. complement molecules
c. ficolins
e. Interleukins—

Answer. A

Ryan & Willie's paper-

1. What enables malaria to make it difficult for a vaccine to target their destruction?
a. complex life cycle in and out of hosts and mosquitoes
b. mutates very easily to treatments such as chloroquine
c. it is a gram negative bacteria with LPS
d. mimic immune cells by causing release of chemicals such as histamine
e. female mosquitoes are the only sex of mosquitoes to feed on humans blood

Answer: A, B, D

—What are some symptoms or characteristics seen in malaria patients?
a. Darkening of the red pulp in the spleen
b. Prolapsing of the uterus
c. Iron deficient
d. High fever
e. increased levels of IFN-gamma due to NK cells

Answer: A, C, D, E

As young Beau took a trip to Africa he stumbled across a turtle. When he bent over to pick this turtle up he exposed his crack and invited a female Anopheles mosquito in for dinner. He felt a small prick! “Ouch!” said Beau, “What am I to do, I think I’ve just been infected with malaria!” The first thing Beau could think of is the paper on Malaria that Willie and Ryan had written so well in Dr. Robson’s immunology class. Beau thinks to himself about what he can do to save himself, but becomes soo weak from the thought of infection that he passes out.

Moments later Beau starts to dream… He wakes up to the sound of engines roaring and looks up to see he is on a journey inside the Magic School Bus alongside Ms. Frizzle and gang! They are exploring the steps of malarial infection inside Beau’s friend Vanessa. Imagine you are alongside Beau and Ms Frizzle as they watch how malaria infects Vanessa. Sequence those events in the order they would happen below.

A. Red blood cells burst.

B. Malaria sporozoites infect hepatocytes.

C. Gametocytes are taken up by another mosquito.

D. Merozoites infect of red blood cells.

E. Malaria passes through urine.

B. D. A. C. E.—

Jeffrey and Vanessa's paper

Which of the following are reasons why HIV-1 is able to escape the human immune system?
a. HIV is transmitted more easily through ruptured mucosal tissue.
b. positive selection sites on the virus where mutation causes genetic diversity
c. V3 loop acts as a decoy for T-cell binding so T-cells can't bind to conserved regions
d. HIV-1 has highly conserved glycoproteins on the envelope
e. HIV makes vif which produces ubiquitin to attach to cytosine deaminases to degrade them
Answers: b, c, e

Which of the following are similarities between a western blot and an ELISA?
a: A western blot detects proteins
b: A western blot uses electrophoresis
c: An ELISA separates a mixed colony of cells
d: An ELISA uses primary and secondary antibodies

What are some differences between T cells and B cells?
a. maintenance of B cells requires IL-6 and IL-12
b. both have the ability to undergo clonal expansion
c. T cells interact with microbial motifs of APC's
d. Some B-cells have the ability to become memory cells
e. B-cells secrete antibodies

Answer: C, E

Which TLR would recognize the following:
a: ssRNA
b: dsRNA
c: CpG motifs
d: lipoproteins
e: LPS
f: Flagellin
Answer: a: TLR 7&8 b: TLR-3 c: TLR-9 d: TLR-1&2 e: TLR-4 f: TLR-5

Similarities between type 1 and type 4 hypersensitivity reactions?
1. Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction is where one’s body makes IgE to inappropriate Targets
2. Type 4 is explained by the hygine hypothesis
3. Type 1 is an inappropriate immune response
4. Type 4 immune hypersensitivity reaction occurs in response to intracellular pathogens

Answer: 3

Which of the following are true about AB production?
a. uses VDJ recombination to make Ab that can bind to different epitopopes.
b. Can be induced by IL-6
c. IgG is always the first isotype made
d. Uses cytosine deaminases to fight infection
e. Is always occurring in b1 B-cells and marginal zone b-cells
f. Generally takes place in plasma cells
g. Besides B1 and marginal zone b-cells, B-cells require a long interaction with APC, such as dendridic cells, to start producing AB

A: a,b,e,f

Which of the following is true about Ab function?
a. IgM is always made first
b. C1 can bind to IgM to kick of the compliment cascade
c. IgE can stick to stuff and block microbes from making people sick
d. Ab only act as opsonins
e. can only bind to proteins

A: b,c

Provide an example of a pathogen that can evade our immune system and how it accomplishes this evasion.
- example - Tuberculosis, stops phagolysome formation in order to survive phagocytosis
example- HPV release of E6 protein to target p53 to an ubiquitinate prevent p53 pathway from occuring; also release of Bcl-2 which is a negative feedback loop for apoptosis
**example- HIV release VIF to bind to deaminase to degrade; release of Ccl-

2 which is a negative feedback loop for apoptosis**
**example- catalase release breaks down reactive oxygen species, mycolic acid cell wall protects bacteria,
- The influenza virus covers its dsRNA with a protien, so the dsRNA is not detected (RNases and protein kinases made by interferons are only activated in the presence of dsRNA).
-Pox virus stops phosphorylation cascade that leads to antiviral gene expresssion

Which of the following are similarities between IgG and IgM
a: IgG is found in the blood
b: IgG is a soluble antibody
c: IgG is transported across the cell membrane
d: IgM is a pentamer
Answer: a,b

The Outer membrane of a gram negative bacteria (composed of LPS) can be recognized and/or broken down by which of the following components?
a. TLR4
b. TLR5
c. SP-D
d. LPS-binding protein
e. SP-A
Answer: a,c,d

The peptidoglycan cell wall composed of NAG and NAM can be recognized and/or broken down by which of the following components?
a. Ficoliin
b. TLR2
c. SP-D
d. SP-A
e. TLR6
f. Lyzozyme
Answer: a,b,e,f

Which of the following are true of septic shock:
a: it is caused by gram (-) bacteria in the blood
b: easily treatable with antibiotics
c: the bacteria that causes septic shock is recognized by TLR-1
d: after the bacteria has been recognized, a phosphorylation cascade is initiated
answers: a,d

How do the following microbes evade our immune system?
a: Influenza virus
b: Pox virus
c: HIV
d: S. aureus
e: P. aeruginosa
answers: a: covers its dsRNA with a protein so the dsRNA is not detected
b: Stops phosphorylation cascade that leads to antiviral gene expression
c: makes VIF -> binds to cytosine deaminase which causes the complex to be tagged with ubiquitin and degraded
d: decreases (-) charge on membrane
e: secretes biofilms which prevents antimicrobial peptides from reaching the bacteria

Which of the following are similarities between NODs and TLRs
a: TLRs are found in all cells
b: TLRs activate transcription factor NK-Kappa-B
c: TLRs are part of the innate immune system
d: TLRs are redundant
ANSWERS: a,b,c,d

If a Macrophage recongizes a pathogen via it's TLRs it releases which of the following.
a. IL-2
b. IL-1
d >TGF
e. TNF
A: b,e,c
The productions realease from the macrophage above will cause endothelial cells to do which of the following?
a. Express P selections on it's surface
b. phagocytose the microbe
c.transcribe and translate Icam and Vcam
d. tighten their cells junctions

A; a,c

This responce of the endothelial cells causes the nuertophil to do which of the following.
a. roll through the vessel more slowly
b. stop and perform diaepadesis
c. relase the contents of its granulous
d. engulf pathogens
e. increase the expression of MHC II
A: a,b

The moleucles eleased form the macrophage above also causes dendricitc cells to do what.
a. express b-7
b. increase random phagocytosis
c. express ccr-7
d. translocate to the lymph node
e. stimulate T-cells
A: all of the above!

What are the similarities between TCR's and Antibodies
a. TCR's consist of alpha and beta chains
b. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains
c. Variability among TCRs are due to V,D,and J recombination
d. TCRs can bind to proteins

answer: c and d

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