January 10 Notes

Immunology, January 10, 2008.

I. The syllabus!

II. FAQs
a. What is a podcast?
b. What is a wiki? How does it work?
c. What is a “scholarly source?” How do I find such sources?
d. What’s the difference between a “review article” and an “original research report”?
e. What websites could I use as sources for my paper?
f. What is an “annotated bibliography”?
g. How will class discussions work?
h. Should I work with another person on my research paper, or do it alone?
i. When should I sign up to lead discussion? How should I pick the paper for us to discuss?
j. Are you really going to invite us all over to dinner? Seriously, how big is your house?
k. Is it true that every time someone says viruses and bacteria are the same, God kills a kitten?
l. Why is this class so hard?

III. Introduction to immunology
a. War of the Worlds—
Moral of the story, aliens can die from bacteria too! Why aren't we like the aliens, and entirely consumed by bacteria? IMMUNOLOGY
b. Microbes vs. Pathogens
i. Kinds of microbes- microscopic organisms
1. Bacteria
*single celled prokaryotes; no membrane bound nucleus, cell membranes differ from eukaryotes and are also smaller than eukaryotes (Bacteria have LTA, LPS, Flagellin and Petpidoglycan which is not present in eukaryotic cells-because of this, these areas are good areas for our immune system to attack, becuase they are not part of "self")
- The cell wall in gram + bacteria is made of peptidoglycan. The peptidoglycan is made of cross links of NAM/NAG and LTA (lipoteichoic acid). They have no outer membrane other than the cell membrane.
- Gram - bacteria have an extra outer membrane outside the cell wall. However, its cell wall is only mad of peptidoglycannot cross links with LTA.
- The outer membrane of the gram - bacteria has a double layer. On the inside it is phospholipids. The outside of the layer has LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and sugar (known as the "o-chain" or "core region")
- Many of the immune system function by disrupting the membranes to cause lysis of the cell due to osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water. When the membrane is broken, water is able to rush into the cell due to osmosis. The cell eventually lysis.
This link gives a good side by side diagram of a gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria for those who haven't taken micro and would like to have a diagram to go off of. http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/images/fig2_6.jpg
2. Viruses (are very small, smaller than bacteria)
*no organelles, can't self replicate, can contain either RNA or DNA for their nucleic acid (Viruses have viral specific glycoproteins and double stranded RNA if it is an RNA virus… none of which are found in eukaryotes)
*membrane envelope of viruses is derived from host cell
http://www.mcld.co.uk/hiv/?q=3D%20HIV (a really good 3-D model of viruses)
3. Fungi
*eukaryotic cells
produce mannose which is used in fungal cell walls but not in animal cells
4. “Parasites”
*can be macro or microscopic (worms vs. protozoans)
Eukaryotic organisms living in a parasitic relationship with a host, dependent upon a eukaryotic host for at least a part of their life cycle

ii. Pathogens- organisms that cause a disease

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